Brodmann areas are sections of the cerebral cortex, defined by the histological structure of the human and other primate brains and the organization of cells. Brodmann areas were identified and numbered by German anatomist Korbinian Brodmann based on the cyto-architectural organization of neurons he observed in the brain cortex using the Nissl cell staining method and published the first map of the cortical region in 1909.
Brodmann found gaps in certain areas indistinguishable in the human brain, but also appeared in other species. Brodmann labeled these unseen areas on the human brain map as 12-16 and 48-51. These numbers are used to study functional activity in different parts of the brain.
3rd, 1st and 2nd Areas: The task of this triple field, known as the 3-1-2 field, is the Primary Tactile Field. This is the region that allows you to detect objects by touch. As can be seen, these 3 areas are located within the cerebrum lobe, which we call the parietal lobe.
4. Area: This area, which is slightly ahead of the 3-1-2 areas, is known as the Primary Engine Area of our brain. It is located in the frontal lobe of the cerebrum. The distinction protrusion (gyrus) between the 4th area and the 3-1-2 areas is called the postcentral gyrus. Area 4, also known as the Primary Samatocensory Area, controls almost all of our voluntary muscle movements. It helps to make decisions of these movements.
5. Area: It is the region where our consciousness about touch is formed by connecting many data belonging to touch to our brain. As a result of the damages that occur in this area, people understand that they touch objects; however, they find it difficult to understand what they touch or do not understand at all. Area 5, as can be guessed, is one of the “association areas” and is referred to as the Tactile Association Area.
Area 6: Known as the Front Motor Area of our Brain, this area is located in the frontal lobe. It is located just in front of the Primary Engine Area. Most of the control of the spinal cord is here. Programs and organizes complex and skilled motor movements (speech, hand, finger movements and eye-hand coordination).
Area 7: Just like field 5, field 7 takes part in associating our tactile perceptions and realizing them consciously. It is known as Perceptual Attribution Area. It is located in the parietal cortex.The task of this field is to evaluate the visual data and to determine the location of many visual data in space-time.
8. Area: This area, just in front of the Front Motor Area (6th area), is known as the Front Eye Area. Research shows that this is the structure that allows living things to move their eyes voluntarily. Damages occurring in this area cause the creature to be unable to move its eyes even if they want. In addition, it is seen that this region is activated at the moment of indecision of the individual. So when we are undecided, this region allows us to make decisions.
9. Area: Dorsolateral (on the back) The 9th area called Prefrontal Cortex is a region directly taken by the primate ancestors of the human species. This area, which is also connected with the 46th area, takes part in the planning, organization and regulation of movements. If this area is damaged or inherently damaged, a problem called application disorder syndrome occurs. In this case, all primates, including the human species, do not feel compassion, cannot make social judgments, lack of operational memory, loss of abstract thinking ability and deterioration in purposeful behavior.
Area 10: This area, defined by the scientific community as “one of the areas that we have the least information about,” is also known as the Anterior Prefrontal Cortex. It is known that it takes roles in transforming events into memory and memory and processing them when necessary.
Area 11: Gyrus rectus. It is one of Brodmann’s cytologically defined areas of the brain. It is the orbitofrontal cortex that is above the eye sockets (orbitals). It is about decision making and rewarding, planning, coding new information into long-term memory and reasoning.
Area 13: It is found in humans, but it appears to act as a bridge between the lateral and medial layers of the brain. So sometimes it is not considered a Brodmann region.
13th, 14th, 15th and 16th brodmann areas: Together they are defined asinsular cortex. Area 14 is more effective in sensing and smelling of internal organs. The 15th field transmits blood inputs to the brain, such as blood pressure and the chemical content of the blood. these inputs are obtained through baroreceptors and chemoreceptors in the carotid artery. The 16th area has cognitive functions such as suffering, taste, and emotion processing.
Area 17: Primary visual cortex – the visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe behind the brain and contains a well-defined map of spatial information necessary for vision.
18, 19. Areas: Visual association fieldsFunction: these areas participate in the recognition and appreciation of visual stimuli. They link visual information, giving meaning to what they see by associating the current stimulus with past experiences and information. A lot of memory is stored here. A lesion in these areas results in visual agnosia, alexia and visual disturbances and recognition.
20th area: It is the inferior temporal gyrus.Some of its functions: – to make sense of the visual data as a whole – visual focus – language, meaning, metaphor
Area 21: The middle temporal gyrus. It is language oriented.Some functions: – deduction – attribution of intent – selective processing of texts and speeches- motion monitoring – prosody – sentence building – processing complex sounds
Area 22: It is a Brodmann area located cytoarchitecture in the posterior superior temporal entrance of the brain. In the left cerebral hemisphere, it is part of the Wernicke field. The left hemisphere helps to produce and understand individual words. On the right side of the brain, both help distinguish the pitch and sound intensity necessary to detect melody and prosody. The Wernicke area is active in the processing language and consists of the left Brodmann area 22 and the supramarginal gyrus, Brodmann area 40.
Language-related Brodmann areas include the Broca region (BA 44/45) and the Wernicke region (BA 42/22); here the Broca region is responsible for language production, and the Wernicke region is responsible for language understanding.
Brodmann region 22 (BA 22) together with Brodmann region 42 (BA 42) forms the area of Wernicke in the upper temporal gyrus in the temporal lobe. Using cytoarchectonic, BA 22 is located in the middle temporal gyrus, separating it from the primary and secondary auditory cortex. BA 22 is associated with nonverbal sound processing in the right hemisphere of the brain associated with activation in the auditory cortex. Other functions associated with 22 languages in the Brodmann region include producing sentences, semantic processing and processing of complex sounds. This area of the human brain supports lexical semantic processing and is responsible for language understanding and production. The Wernicke field has been shown to support lexicographic-semantics, because lesions in this area result in difficulties in displaying word selection during language production.
Since Wernicke’s area supports language comprehension in the temporal lobe, lesions in the left auditory cortex, especially BA 22, result in Wernicke’s aphasia. Also known as Wernicke’s receptive aphasia, aphasia is a language disorder that has difficulty understanding the language. This disorder often depends on the severity and localization of brain damage due to stroke. Patients diagnosed with Wernicke’s aphasia have been shown to have normal intonation and speed of speech, but have difficulty understanding different words of a language. These phrases produced by Wernicke aphasia patients are often difficult for others to understand because of problems with word selection and comprehension.
23., 26., 29., 30. and 31. brodmann areas:
They form the posterior cingulate gyrus. Some functions:- voluntary and involuntary connotation (field 23) – word and voice coding (field 30) – false memories- topographic memory – language, selective attention to speech (area 30) – passive listening- semantic and emotional processing of words – reasoning towards measure (fields 29.-30)- fear-related conditioning – appraisal – visual processing – discrimination
24., 32., 33. brodmann areas:
They form the anterior cingulate gyrus.Some functions:- mental time – deductive reasoning – inductive reasoning- motor planning – preparation – sexual stimulation based on visual data- visuospatial attention – auditory attention – selective attention – split attention- cognitive-motor inhibition – experiential – emotional processing – social perception – mirror neurons- object naming – semantic and phonological fluency – speech initiation and suppression – pain25th area: Subgenual gyrus. Some functions:- mechanical hyperesthesia – evaluation of emotional words – moral reasoning
27., 34., 35., 36. and 48. brodmann areas:
They form hippocampal areas. Some functions:- facial memory – auditory memory – emotional memory – visual memory – verbal – semantic memory- autobiographical memory – smell and taste memory – contextual navigation – spatial navigation- shame – hunger – mirror neurons – stress – disgust (eroticism) – negative memories (amygdala + hippocampus)
Fusiform gyrus can be defined as posterior inferior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Some functions:- drawing – deductive – facial recognition (fusiform gyrus) – face – name association- visual, color and shape oriented attention – semantic categorization – word recall – word generation- sign language – metaphor – attribution of intent – truth – false memory – episodic coding
The temporal pole. Some functions: – moral judgment – self-other distinction – attribution of intent – emotion – threat, fear – attachment – irony – humor – inferential reasoning – music – semantic processing
Parts of the inferior parietal lobule and wernicke area are an area formed by the angular gyrus. important for calculation. Some functions:- computation – arithmetic – abstract coding of numerical quantities – spatial attention and processing- mind modeling – verbal creativity – action sequence processing – behavior control – reading
Inferior parietal lobule and supramarginal gyrus. Supramarginal gyrus is important for empathy. Some functions: – empathy – verbal creativity – behavior control – motor planning – unpleasant memories- auditory and emotional working memory – repetitive passive movements – voluntary recall- Integration of tactile and proprioceptive information – different, same distinction
41. brodmann area is also known as anterior transverse temporal area 41. It is a cytoarchectonic part of the cerebral cortex occupying the anterior transverse temporal gyrus on the dorsal surface of the temporal lobe, on the shore of the lateral sulcus.
Brodmann regions 41 and 42 are part of the primary auditory cortex. This is the first cortical destination of auditory information originating from the thalamus. Damage to the Primary Auditory Cortex in humans leads to the loss of any ‘awareness’ of the sound, but the ability to react reflexively to sounds as there is too much subcortical processing in the auditory brainstem and midbrain.
The auditory cortex is involved in tasks such as identifying and separating auditory “objects” and locating a sound in space.
The auditory cortex is the highest level of organized sound processing unit in the brain. This cortex area is the neural basis of hearing. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate sections, the primary, secondary and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around each other, with primary AC in the middle and tertiary AC outside.
The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically arranged, which means that some cells in the auditory cortex are sensitive to certain frequencies. It is thought that this region of the brain “determines the basic elements of music such as pitch and loudness.” This is the area that receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. The secondary auditory cortex is specified in the processing of “harmonic, melodic and rhythmic patterns”. The tertiary auditory cortex integrates everything into the overall music experience.
Subcentral area. Some functions: – response to finger stimulation – speech language
Brodmann region 44 or BA44 is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. It is located immediately in front of the premotor cortex (BA6).
This area is also known as the pars opercularis (of the lower frontal gyrus), and refers to a subdivision of the cyto-architecturally defined frontal region of the cerebral cortex. creates tasks (determining whether a word represents an abstract or concrete entity) and production tasks (producing a verb associated with a noun).
Some data show that BA44 is more involved in the motor aspect of speech. Some recent findings show the effect of the 44th region on music perception. Neuroimaging studies also show that region 44 is associated with hand movements. The presence of mirror neurons in the Broca region suggests a language evolved from a gesture imitation system. Broca’s field also concerns theory of mind (ToM). This is the ability to understand the mental state of others through inference and projection.
The Broca field is associated with the practice of speech (motor speech programming).
To be able to bring together the binding elements of the language
choosing information from competing sources
sort engine / expression elements
cognitive control mechanisms for syntactic processing of sentences
creating complex sentences and speech patterns
Lesions in these areas cause Broca’s aphasia: although the person continues to understand the language and mentally formulate appropriate sentences, there is a lack of ability to speak and produce appropriate words / sounds.
It is part of the prefrontal cortex and anterior mid frontal gyrus. It is important for temporary memory, which we call working memory. Some functions: – temporary memory – memory coding and recognition – semantic processing – verbal fluency – phonological processing – calculation
Lower frontal gyrus and pars orbital. Some functions:- semantic processing and coding – deductive – decision making
Not included in areal maps of the human cortex.
The parasubiculum in the rodent is a retrohippocampal iscortical structure and an important component of the subicular complex. It receives a large number of subcortical and cortical inputs and sends large projections to the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex.
Area 50 and 51:
Regions not found in humans. It is found in monkeys and two different animals.
Located on the dorsal surface of the temporal lobe, on the edge of the lateral sulcus. Its medial border corresponds approximately to the junction between the temporal lobe and the insula. Cyto-architecturally, the front transverse temporal area is laterally limited to 42.