There is a reason why periodic tables are from periodic tables. Similar to some properties of chemical elements, or more precisely, it follows a certain trend. Selecting, with the best known example, the atomic weight increases to the left of the periodic table to the right and upwards. Look at the periodic table, which is a weight comparison between which two elements we can say that the atom to the right and / or below our other is heavier. If we are a bit more interested in chemistry, we can make the element’s location in the periodic table only, that element in very consistent predictions. With the advantage of this prediction of the periodic table, the compounds that would not be formed under normal conditions can be used theoretically, calculate their reactions; We can even anticipate Germanium, Scandium and Gallium, along with all their features, before they are discovered, like Mendeleev. In this context, the periodic table consists of the first computers.
Where Did We Come From? Where Are We Going?
Elements are pure substances that consist of the same type of atoms and cannot be chemically broken into simpler parts. There are 94 “natural” elements formed in the universe. It was produced in laboratories not artificially, but artificially after the first 94 elements.
The atom is the smallest identical part that makes up an element. It consists of roughly the nucleus and electrically negatively charged electrons orbiting around it. The nucleus consists of electrically positively charged protons and neutral (uncharged) neutrons. While the weights of protons and neutrons are almost close together, the weights of electrons are so small that they are negligible. Therefore, atomic weight is considered to be the sum of the weight of protons and neutrons. The number of protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei are equal. However, the nuclei of some atoms may contain more than the number of protons neutrons. Atoms with nuclei of this type are called isotopes. The increase in the number of protons in the nucleus makes it a new element; The increasing number of neutrons does not make it a new element due to the ability of neutrons to be uncharged. Therefore, isotopes are the atom of the same element with heavier nuclei. Because the number of neutrons has increased. Neutrons are the main subatomic particles that determine atomic weight. The other is the protocol we just mentioned.
Nucleus synthesis means the emergence of new nuclei from protons and neutrons in extraordinary places and conditions such as the nucleus of stars, such as the massive explosion medium. Our subject is mostly core synthesis. Nucleus synthesis should not be confused with nuclear fusion being carried out in nuclear reactors today. While nuclear fusion is a process that has become almost everyday, like two or more atomic nuclei forming a new atomic nucleus; Nucleus synthesis is called individual protons and neutrons to form a new nucleus.
Nucleus synthesis are directly related to the origin of the elements. By the way, let’s point out: the stories of other elements are still ongoing, except for those that occurred in the big bang. Elements continue to form in various parts of the universe in quantities that our minds cannot.
1. Big Bang
The single nuclei synthesis, which still does not continue, occurred in a large explosion environment.The other core synthesis we’re about to talk about are still going on in the universe.
In these “core synthesis” elements, which occurred between 3rd and 20th minutes after the big explosion, only the first two, i.e. hydrogen and helium elements (and isotopes) formed.These are also the two lightest elements. This explosion, indirectly the “grandmother” of all other elements, is considered the beginning of the universe as we know it today.As with various scientific theories about before the explosion, philosophical and religious explanations were brought in.But it’s not about the big bang. The point is, the third time the big bang is going to be a third-largest explosion.from the beginning of the minute.
The first 20 minutes of the big bang also produced a lithium-7 isotope, a stable isotope of lithium- 7.Again, a small amount of Berilyum-7 isotope formed. However, since this isotope is an unstable isotope, lithium-7 and hydrogen are disrupted to -3 isotopes.Lithium and berilium are also the two lightest elements after hydrogen and helium.
2.Cosmic Beam Fragmentation
It has formed lithium, berilyum and boron elements, with high-energy cosmic rays hitting atoms in the universe and forming a new core of protons and neutrons caused to pop out of its core.Besides, almost all of the helium-3 iso cannons in the universe are formed in this way.But helium-3 isotope makes up very little of the helium in the universe.
Due to cosmic rays, some small amounts of aluminum, carbon (especially the famous carbon-14), chlorine, iodine and neon isotopes were also formed.The nuclei of these rare isotopes are called cosmoogenic recurrences. Scientists can make geological recollections on the relevant Earth rock or asteroid samples based on the ratio of cosmic recurrences and elements to other isotopes caused by cosmic rays.
As we may notice in the periodic table, cosmic rays are cited as the cause of the formation of three elements, and the atomic numbers of these three elements are 3,4 and 5, respectively.If we want to add the rare isotopes we’re talking about, we can come up to 6, 7 and 8.But we can’t go any further. Which means we need more energy than high-energy cosmic rays to create heavier atoms, i.e. to combine more protons in the same core.It seems logical that places where there are incredible temperatures and pressure to combine more protons and neutrons are suitable for this job.
Which bakery can this work be done in? In the big nuclear ovens in the sky, of course.It’s not very romantic when you say that, but in fact, stars deserve more romance as nuclear ovens that increase elemental diversity rather than being a witness to a romantic night, thus producing elements that give the universe and the world color and smell.
3.Star and Supernova Core Synthesis
If we look at the periodic table, we may notice that the vast majority of elements occur in star cores and supernova explosions.Almost all of the right-six corners of the periodic table are pink.This tells us that heavy atoms occur only in supernova explosions.As atomic weights decrease, green and yellow colors take their place in the table.These atoms are formed in the stars.
Stars are huge plasma balls that stand together by their own mass-gravity.Just like the evolution of living things, stars have evolution.The first stars were formed by the combination of the first two elements after the big explosion.The explosion of these stars has given birth to second-generation stars and star systems with heavier atoms orbiting, satellites and other small celestial bodies.Our solar system is one of them. Although the stars seem too indistinguishable from the naked eye, they are divided into various species and classes by astrophysicists.Although the diameter, color, and brightness of a star at first glance give an idea of the star’s age, you can learn more about it, with the star analyzing the light coming from earth on the spectrum.
Gravity of the stars on themselves is the lead actor of the evolution of the stars and, consequently, the element formation that we will talk about in a moment.We can make the stars look like balloons. As the atmospheric pressure drops, the air inside the balloon will spontaneously expand to synchronize itself with atmospheric pressure.However, when you increase the external pressure, the external pressure will beat the pressure in the balloon and the inner pressure of the balloon will shrink until the external pressure is equal to the external pressure.We’re talking about a pressure balance here. At altitudes where atmospheric pressure is low, the balloon will spontaneously swell thoroughly and its elastic structure will not withstand that tension and explode. In stars, this balance is not pressure balance; the balance of collapse from the center to the center due to the expansion and mass of the core reactions.While core reactions want to expand the star, it wants to shrink the mass star towards its center.
The pressure and temperature in the star cores are so high that the helium and hydrogen nuclei approach each other, almost intertwined.This high pressure and temperature are more than we could have imagined with our everyday experience.However, this strange balance within the star itself prevents the production of all elements in its core.This temperature and pressure can only produce up to the iron element.Because the force of the star’s self-collapse is no longer strong enough to create heavier atomic cores.It has begun to gain core pressure for expansion.
For atoms heavier than iron, other extraordinary conditions are required: supernova explosions.
We can continue to liken supernovatoe to balloons that explode, deteriorating internal and external pressure balance.Stars, especially large-mass stars,,, as they get older, as the elements in their core become, they completely deteriorate, bursting from their core to their surface, and distributing heavy elements of their content into space.Supernova explosions, unlike anything we can see, are divided into various groups, taking into account the various characteristics of astrophysicists.
Supernova explosions have now created an environment that will allow heavy cores to form iron.With a star exploding as a supernova, 94 natural elements have now been formed.This environment is the cradle of new stars that will arise in a sense.Stars of this content and celestial bodies will appear that will turn around them.
The abundance and ratio of elements in a solar system depends on the content of the cloud in which it was born and the star that created that cloud.By looking at the abundance of elements in our world and in our solar system, we can learn and understand the content of the first star that gave birth to us, or even our sister solar systems.
Questions about Vitality
Is it because life on Earth is carbon-derived, because carbon is the lightest element produced in the stars and, accordingly, abundantly contained and scattered around?Or is carbon the only logical building block for living already because it can create millions of different compounds?Again, oxygen and nitrogen, which are essential slurs of vitality, are it so important to scatter the solar system in abundance because of the light elements?Or could other elements replace oxygen and nitrogen?The sum of only oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen accounts for 91 percent of our body’s weight.Does that have anything to do with the fact that the elements mentioned are light and there’s plenty in the universe?Is it because of the abundance of nitrogen that we can breathe in a world where the atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen?I wonder where the vitality would evolve so that another element would live in an atmosphere dominated by it.
Of course, the answer to these questions is not easy. There’s a lot we don’t know about, we can’t calculate, we’ll learn when calculating.However, the periodic ruler can help us in giving a general direction to our way of departure.Life means chemistry. The elements at the bottom of the periodic ruler are called groups.Although the elements in the same group do not have to resemble color, smell and other physical characteristics, their chemical behavior is similar.For example, we can remove the oxygen from the water and replace it with sulfur.Because on the periodic ruler, these two elements are found at the bottom. Or by using silicon instead of carbon, we can produce silicon polymers similar to carbon polymers.Both elements are located at the bottom. I wonder if there are advanced silicon-based creatures in hydrogen sulphur elsewhere in the universe?Trying to answer these questions can’t go any further than a brain gym.We now know almost exactly the origin of the elements. But we don’t know why they’re acting, why they have to, in a sense, the nature of the item.But the “unanswered questions” that science has brought to date are a good reference to science and perhaps one day it will answer these issues as well.