Ernest Miller Hemingway (21 July 1899 – 2 July 1961) is an American novelist, story writer and journalist.
It influenced 20th century fiction novelism with its simple writing technique and simple style. Most works by the Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning author are considered one of the masterpieces of American literature today.
Family and youth
He was born in Oak Park, west of Chicago, Illinois, in 1899. He was one of two boys of his family with five children. Her father is Clarence Edmond Hemingway, a medical doctor, and her mother is Grace Hall Hemingway, a former musician. He got his name from the names of his father and uncle. In childhood, he took music lessons from his mother. Her family used to spend their summer holidays in their summerhouse on the shores of Lake Michigan. He learned hunting, fishing and outdoor sports there.
He published his first articles in Trapeze, a school newspaper during his high school years. He was influenced by the famous sports columnist Ring Lardner of the period; “Ring Lardner, Jr.” in his writings used his nickname. He finished high school in 1917. Unlike his family’s wish, instead of going to college, he started working as a reporter in the newspaper Kansas City Star.
World War I
During Hemingway’s high school years, World War I was going on in Europe. When the USA, which maintained its neutrality at the beginning of the war, entered the war in April 1917, Hemingway applied to join the army; however, his application was not accepted due to a defect in his left eye. Then, he was among the first applicants when he heard that the Red Cross received volunteers towards the end of 1917. In January 1918, Hemingway’s application was accepted and he was appointed as an ambulance driver.
As soon as he started working at the Red Cross, he left his job at the newspaper. During his short stay in the newspaper, he learned many methods and techniques. In the following years, he would remember those days as “The rules I learned in journalism were the most beautiful and I could not forget them during my entire writing life”.
The first city in Europe was Paris. After working as a normal officer in the army for a while, he switched to ambulance driver. On 8 June 1918 he was seriously injured by an Austrian ball exploding a few steps ahead. One of the Italians he tried to help died while the other lost his legs. During the same incident, he was injured by his legs trying to bring another wounded Italian soldier to the front. After the events, he was declared a hero in Italian newspapers and was awarded with the Silver Medal of Honor by the Italian government. Hemingway described this incident to his friend as follows: “Sometimes you hear a big noise in the front lines in the war, I heard the same noise, then I felt that my soul was pulled from me like a handkerchief from the pocket. Finally, I realized that my soul was returned to my body as a whole. and there was no death for me from that moment on. “
After these events, Hemingway met nurse Agnes von Kurawsky and fell in love while completing his treatment in a hospital in Milan. After recovery, he served in an Italian infantry unit, in 1919 he was discharged with the rank of lieutenant. He was planning to return to the US with nurse Agnes and marry, but was abandoned. This relationship has been the subject of Hemingway’s immortal works, “Farewell to Arms” (A Farewell to Arms).
Returning to the US after the war, the writer lived unemployed for about a year with the money given by the army due to his disability despite the pressures his family had to find a job. He then met Hadley Richardson in 1921 and married him. In the same year he emigrated to Chicago. He found a job in the newspaper Daily Star in Toronto and moved to Paris. He met American writers F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound and Irish James Joyce, who count as volunteers in Paris. This environment encouraged him to give products in the field of summer.
Because of her husband’s pregnancy, they returned to America in 1923; his son John Hadley Nicanor (Jack) was born in Toronto. In the same year, his first book, “Three Stories and 10 Poems” was published. The Hemingway family returned to Paris in 1924.
In the period from 1925 to 1929, Hemingway gave the best examples of his writing years and was among the most famous writers in the world. His work called Our Time (In Our Time), consisting of selected stories, was published in 1925, and his first novel “The Sun Also Rises” was published in 1926. He recounted the memories of a war-weary soldier. With his book Men Without Women, which was published in 1927, he began to be known as the ‘top of the short story’. In his second novel “Farewell to Arms” published in 1929, he expressed the love of a wounded soldier to a nurse in the war and emphasized the meaninglessness of the war.
The author left his wife at the time his first novel was published and married journalist Pauline Pfeiffer; Since his new wife’s family was Catholic, he changed from Protestant to Catholic. They left Paris in 1928 due to the pregnancy of their new wife. Her son Patrick was born in Kansas City. It was a difficult birth.
Hemingway described this difficult birth in the Farewell to Arms novel. The couple’s second son, Gregory, was born in 1931. That same year, his father committed suicide and ended his life.
Hemingway spent winters in Key West, Florida during the 1930s. In the summer he returned to Wyoming for hunting and fishing. The writer, a bullfighter fan, wrote the book “Death in the Afternoon” (1931) on bullfighting. His book, “Winners take nothing”, in which he collected his short stories, was published in 1933.
Hemingway, who participated in a safari tour with his wife Pauline for the first time in 1933, described his meeting with Africa in his book, Green Hills of Africa (1935). This 10-week journey also inspired the stories of Klimanjaro’s Profits and Francis Macomber’s Short Happy Life. After returning from Africa, he bought a fishing boat named Pillar. This boat will inspire him for the Old Man and Sea novel he will write in the future.
In 1936, he met war correspondent Martha Gellhorn in Florida. They went to Spain together during the Spanish Civil War. Hemingway was a war correspondent for the North American Newspaper Association, and Martha Gellhron for Collier’s Weekly magazine. Hemingway penned the Fifth Column autobiographical play in Madrid in 1937.
II. World war years
Hemingway, who wanted to leave his wife, went to Cuba in 1939 and settled in a hotel in Havana. Martha Gellhorn came to her. After the divorce of Hemigway, the couple married and bought a farm near Havana and lived there.
Hemingway completed one of his most successful works, “Who’s Playing the Bell”, in 1940. He was nominated for the 1941 Pulitzer Prize with this work; however, no reward was awarded as a result of a jury’s opposition. He went to China with his wife following the Sino-Japanese War for Collier magazine. The couple, the USA’s II. He returned to Cuba before entering World War II. They went to Europe as war correspondent in 1944. Hemingway was a journalist under the American 5th Infantry Division. On August 25, 1944, when the Germans surrendered, Hemingway entered Paris from the west with the American forces. He actively took part in the war, contrary to the Geneva Convention. Therefore, he was tried in a military court .; He was presented with a medal for his courage in the war with a small ceremony held at the American embassy in Cuba in 1947.
Divorced from Martha Gellhorn in 1945, Hemingway met Time newspaper reporter Mary Welsh in London in 1946. The couple married in Cuba in March 1946 and lived their lives in Cuba until 1959.
Hemingway II in the background. His work titled “From the River to the Beyond the Trees” was published in 1950. This work was not found as successful as Farewell to Weapons, which tells about the First World War, and For Whom The Bell Who Tells Spanish Civil War. In 1952, he wrote his real masterpiece “Old Man and Sea”. In this book, he stated his ideas about how people should be connected to life and actually everything is empty in human life. In 1953 he received the Pulitzer Prize for his same work. In 1954, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Hemingway, who continued his travels and adventures, was injured in one of these trips. In the second half of the 1950s, his mental and physical health deteriorated gradually due to the influence of alcoholism. After finding the two chests he left at the Ritz Hotel in Paris in 1928, he started writing his memories, but he was depressed while writing his memories. He was disturbed by the fact that his house was constantly filled with visitors and tourists. He bought a house in Idaho and started thinking about moving there. After the Cuban revolution in 1959, he continued to come and go to Cuba.
The last years
When the new regime in Cuba decided to nationalize American properties, it definitely moved to Idaho. His mental health deteriorated. One day, when his wife found him with a rifle in his kitchen, he was hospitalized and received electro shock therapy. Two days after he was discharged, he ended his life by shooting himself with a hunting gun in his home in 1961.