There are 3 important vitamins and Minerals: A, C and E vitamins and selenium mineral. These molecules react in a biochemical mechanism called the antioxidant network with effects such as peroxyl radicals, UVA, UVB rays, reactive oxygen species that can be harmful to our body and create oxidant stress. Thus, our body is protected from these effects.
What Is Antioxidant Net?
The antioxidant system is a biological structure that inhibits the uncontrolled formation or reactions of free radicals and active oxygen species. Ascorbate (vitamin C) and glutathione in this system are hydrophilic cleansers. They are found cytosolically, mitochondrial, and nuclear, clearing free radicals by electron or hydrogen transfer. Hydrophobic cleaners are found in the cell membrane. Examples of these are α-tocopherol (vitamin E), which interacts with lipid peroxyl radicals as a primary, and carotenoids (vitamin A), which act as a secondary cleanser of free radicals and as a single oxygen cleanser.
Another molecule that is required for the system to work is enzymes. Antioxidant enzymes include superoxide distumase (SOD) and catalases. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase is also part of this system. Reducing coenzymes, peroxidases, and all reducing components are regenerated with NAD(P)H produced by certain metabolic means i.e. they are regenerated. At the same time, the interaction of antioxidants relies on sequential degradation of peroxides and free radicals.
The antioxidant properties of vitamin A come from carotenoids, which are known as precursors to vitamin A. These molecules neutralize reactive oxygen species by attracting them. Sources include orange fruits such as carrots, apricots, and legumes.
Tocopherols and tocotrienols are involved in the vitamin E cycle in the antioxidant network system. Effects such as UV rays, air pollution, radiation, smoking, lipid peroxidation cause the formation of free radicals. These free radicals are called ROS (reactive oxygen species). Tocopherols interact with these free radicals to eliminate their harmful effects. Α-tocopherol, the biologically active main form of vitamin E, is generally considered the most important lipid soluble antioxidant in human tissues. It primarily fights the effects of lipid peroxidation. Vegetable oils,fatty foods (fish, nuts) vitamin E sources.
In the vitamin C Cycle in the antioxidant network system, Dehydro ascorbic acid is involved. This molecule interacts with harmful biological agents and reactive oxygen species. It can act as in intracellular organelles both by reacting with aqueous peroxyl radicals and indirectly by restoring the antioxidant properties of fat-soluble vitamin E. In addition, intracellular free radical attack on non-lipid nuclear material may also be reduced.Fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, are sources of vitamin C.
Another cycle in the antioxidant network system involves the enzyme glutathione peroxidase and selenium is required for this enzyme to work. We cannot show a specific source for selenium, the richer the soil selenium, the richer the nutrients will be
What we can say is that antioxidants protect us from the effects of a system, the process, that can harm our bodies. We can think of each cycle as a wheel, each one will spin the other, and so it will spin continuously, and when there is a problem in any one, the system will slow down, maybe stop, and negative effects, health problems will start to occur. So it is very important that this wheel is strong, that it continues to spin continuously. We need to know their resources well and consume them at sufficient levels.